Selected Projects from the gauff.com Enterprises
Rehabilitation of the Berbera – Tog Wajaale Road (Addis Ababa-Berbera Corridor) — Northern part of Somaliland, from port of Djibouti to the border with Ethiopia
Technical and economic feasibility studies followed by preliminary and detailed engineering designs for the rehabilitation of the Berbera – Tog Wajaale Road (Addis Ababa-Berbera Corridor).
The project road runs from the Ethiopian/Somaliland border at Tog Wajaale via the capital Hargeisa to the port of Berbera at the Gulf of Aden.
The route is part of the Addis Ababa – Berbera Corridor, an alternative route for the Djibouti Corridor. Once rehabilitated, the road can carry a high percentage of international cargo traffic in transit to Ethiopia, Kenya and further hinterlands.
The Government of Malawi has received a loan from the African Development Bank (AfDB) towards the cost of the Multi-National Nacala Road Corridor, proceeds of which shall partly be used to finance the construction of the Lilongwe West By-Pass (13 Km).
The construction of the 13 km long Lilongwe West Bypass Road will contribute in achieving the Government’s programme of developing the road sector in the country by raising the standards of the national road network and connecting Malawi with neighbouring countries.
Furthermore, the construction of the Bypass will divert through traffic from the Central Business District (CBD) of Lilongwe and therefore reduce travel time, vehicle operation costs and other exogenous costs for road users. Transportation of people and goods will also become more efficient.
Consultancy services for techno studies, detailed engineering designs and preparation of tender documents for the rehabilitation of the road between Serenje and Mpika (238 km).
Road T002 is one of the six (6) international trunk routes connecting Zambia with its neighbouring countries of Tanzania and Zimbabwe. It thus forms an important component of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) ‘North-South Corridor’ and the COMESA ‘Dar TAZARA Corridor’. The route attracts trade and the transportation of international cargo and bulk commodities between the countries of Tanzania, DR Congo, Zimbabwe and South Africa.
Feasibility study, detailed engineering design, tender assistance and project management for capacity improvement projects: lot A Kibuye-Busega-Mpigi (32 kms).
The project road radiates from the southern entry/exit of Kampala starting from Kibuye Roundabout in Kampala and runs in a south-westerly direction for 34 km, terminating at Mpigi.
The route is part of the Northern Corridor which is the main route to south western part of Uganda and carries a high percentage of international cargo traffic in transit to Eastern Congo, Rwanda and Burundi.
Local and peri-urban traffic is also served by the route and a number of trading centers are connected, including; Natete, Kyengera, Nabingo, Kitemu, Nsangi, Nakirebe, Katende and Mpigi.
Time2010 - 2012
ClientUganda National Roads Authority (UNRA)
Detailed Engineering Design, Tender Documents, Detailed ESIAs and ESMPs for Water Supply, Sanitation and Drainage Project — Zambia
MCC and the Gov. of Zambia signed a Compact with the purpose of enabling access to clean and safe water supply and providing adequate wastewater networks services as well as improved drainage systems for the residents of Lusaka.
The Water Supply and Sanitation Project deals with the rehabilitation of Iolanda WTP and transmission mains, expansion of the primary network grid, NRW reduction program in selected areas, expansion of secondary distribution networks, rehabilitation of Chelston sewer pumping station, sewer expansion of Mtendere, Kuanda Square interceptor upgrading and ponds rehabilitation and expansion.
The drainage project deals with the Bombay main drain, the Bombay Drain Segments 2, 4 and 5, Lumumba Drain North and South, ZESCO Drain and one trash trap located at the end of the catchment area of Bombay/Lumumba Drain.
The economic and humanitarian crisis in 2008 that included widespread cholera outbreaks prompted the Zimbabwean Government and the donors to begin dialogue on the modalities of financing relief and remedial efforts. The African Development Bank was asked by a group of donors, with the consent of the Zimbabwean Government, to establish and administer a ‘basket’ fund – the Zimbabwe Multi-Donor Trust Fund (the “Zim-Fund”). The main purpose for the Zim-Fund is to mobilise and administer donor resources needed for the economic recovery and development efforts in Zimbabwe. Part of the resources mobilised by the Zim-Fund have been applied towards the Urgent Water Supply and Sanitation Rehabilitation Project (UWSSRP) whose main scope is the urgent rehabilitation of water supply and sanitation systems in six urban centres, namely Harare, Chitungwiza, Mutare, Masvingo, Kwekwe and Chegutu with a combined population of approximately 4.15 million. Under the UWSSRP, the Zim-Fund also finances consultancy services for the development of Medium to Long Term Water Supply and Sanitation Investment Plans. The Investment Plans are intended to provide useful guides to the Municipalities and the Zim-Fund on the financing requirements and the phasing of future water supply and sanitation investments in the target towns.
Emergency Measures Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation Systems in Erbil, Dohuk and Sulaimaniya — Iraq
In 2004 the Consultant concluded a Consulting Contract with KfW on provision of services for the Water Supply Emergency Measures Programme for Erbil, Dohuk and Sulaimaniya. The envisaged measures of the emergency programme were focused on the improvement of water supply services through repair and training measures for ensuring an enhanced day to day operation of the existing distribution network facilities in the three cities, including the procurement of sewer cleaning trucks for allowing a regular and effective cleaning of frequently blocked sewer lines. Due to the uncertain political and security situation in the region the project activities were stopped in the second quarter of 2004.
In 2010 and upon request from KfW, gauff.com submitted a revised technical and financial bid for the continuation of a revised project program comprising the initial EUR 3 Mil. In 2012, the revised project program was extended by the services as described under Addendum No.4 comprising additional funds of EUR 250 K.
The following performance indicators were meant to be achieved by gauff.com in the course of executing the project program:
- Institutional Management Support for the three local branch water utilities in Erbil, Dohuk, and Sulaimaniya
- Procurement of special quality equipment
- NRW Action Plan including District Metering
- Private Sector Participation
Second National Water Supply and Sanitation Program (Water Supply and Wastewater Management Investments in 8 Rayons) — Azerbaijan
The Program aims to improve water supply and sanitation services in 16 regions (rayons) across Azerbaijan and is co-financed by the Government of Azerbaijan and the World Bank. Implementing Agency for implementation and controlling of the project is the State Amelioration and Water Management Company (SAWMC).
Due to the high increase of the total investment volume finally comprising approx. 500 million EUR, the Gov’t of Azerbaijan decided to transfer 8 rayons to the state organization Azersu JSC for implementation. As as result, the number of rayons including urban centers and associated villages has been decreased to 8 rayons with an investment volume of approx. 250 million EUR in total. Main goal is improved availability of services (24/7) and improved quality of water supply and wastewater management services in 8 rayons for approx. 260.000 inhabitants. All project investment measures have to comply with the latest standards of the European Union. All electro-mechanical devices to be installed under the program have to comply with the latest standards of energy efficiency.
Investment measures comprise 2 water treatment plants (Qtot = 23.200 m³/d); 43 drinking water storage tanks; 22 booster pumping stations; 11 water distribution networks + 85 km transmission mains; 11 wastewater collection networks with 12 sewerage booster pumping stations and 8 wastewater treatment plants with mechanical and biological treatment stages, nutrient removal and sludge treatment.
Irrigation and Water Supply Scheme Conveyor 800 for the Hydro Agricultural Development of South Lebanon — Lebanon
The Hydro Agricultural Development of South Lebanon is a sector program for implementation of the large scale Conveyor 800 irrigation and water supply scheme. Conveyor 800 consists of transportation mains conveying water from the existing Markaba tunnel downstream of the Qaraoun reservoir to Chaqra. The project comprises tunnels (2.6m diameter), the main conveyor ND 300 – 2000, canals and secondary conveyors branching off from the main to irrigate a total area of 14,700 ha. In addition, 76 towns and villages within the irrigation peripheral in southern Lebanon are supplied with potable water for domestic use.
In 2003 a consortium consisting of Lahmeyer Int’l, Gauff, and Dar Al Handasah was commissioned to provide the consultancy services. First stage of the consulting services was finalized in 2008. After a long break due to political inflictions in 2012 the project was resumed and construction under stage V was started. According to the progress of works by the end of 2012 it is expected that the project implementation measures can be finalized in mid-2017.
Key Data Irrigation and Water Supply Scheme Conveyor 800, Lebanon:
- Irrigation Area: 14,700 ha
- Total length of main (secondary) conveyor: 56 km (69km)
- Total length of open channels: 13 km
- Total length of water tunnels: 6 km
- Capacity of water reservoirs: 75,100 m³ (total of 12 reservoirs)
- Capacity 7 pump stations: 70 – 550 l/s
- capacity of the conveyor system: 8,689 l/s
- Construction cost: USD 140 million
Water and Sewerage Programme in Medium-Sized Municipalities in Serbia, Programme III – Wastewater — Serbia
Program III is focusing on improvement of the quality of receiving waters and living conditions of residents of medium-sized municipalities in Serbia by means of rehabilitation and new construction of wastewater management and treatment facilities. Participants in program III are the municipalities of Kruševac, Užice and Vranje. The necessary investments have been estimated to be approx. EUR 55.0 million.
For fulfillment of the program objectives a variety of performance indicators will be evaluated comprising legal stipulations concerning urban wastewater treatment or application of typical indicators such as connection rate, cost coverage, etc. which have been typically benchmarked by evaluation of comparable water utilities.
The investment measures under the MSM-III program comprise Component 1 (sewerage networks) and Component 2 (WWTPs):
- Rehabilitation of existing sewerage network sections in the service areas (L = 14 km) with 2 pumping stations
- Extension of new sewerage network sections in the service areas and construction of new collectors to WWTPs (L = 70 km) including 6 new pumping stations
- Rehabilitation of storm water drainage systems in Kruševac, Vranje, and Užice (rehabilitation of storm water lines, separation of storm water and sewer lines, construction of overflows and retention basins)
- Construction of 3 new wastewater treatment plants (~ 90,000 PE) with mechanical and biological treatment stages aiming at full carbon and nutrient removal, and sludge treatment by means of anaerobic digestion and recovery of energy through a co-generation plant
- Construction of sewerage collection infrastructure in selected surrounding settlements
Project management, contract assistance, assistance during contract negotiations.
The Budapest Airport extends its Terminal 2 for the Ferihegy International Airport.
Extension of Water Supply and Sewerage Network and Construction of a new Wastewater Treatment Plant in Sivas — Türkey
The water distribution network of the Turkish Provincial Capital Sivas showed urgent needs for rehabilitation and extension. Frequent flooding of the streets occurred due to missing separation between waste and stormwater parts of the existing sewage and stormwater system. Generated wastewater was discharged to the receiving river without any treatment. The Municipality of Sivas decided to launch an ambitious infrastructure investment program aiming at ensuring sustainable drinking water supply and sewage disposal.
For fulfillment of the project objectives a number of performance indicators was defined comprising legal stipulations concerning urban wastewater treatment or application of typical indicators such as connection rate, cost coverage, etc. which have been typically benchmarked by evaluation of comparable water utilities.
The investment program under the Sivas WSS project comprised the following measures (lots):
- Lot 1: Water supply improvement measures
- Lot 2: Rehabilitation of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems
- Lot 3: Construction of the main wastewater conveyor and a new WWTP (405,000 P.E.)
The Überseestadt is currently the biggest urban development area in Bremen – from the seaport to the new residential area and service district at the Weser. The goal was to provide a high quality public transport connection, taking into consideration the economic viability of the project. Therefore, the possibility of implementing trolley bus operation at the bus line 20 was analyzed.
In order to provide a high-quality and emission-free solution, the possibility of converting the bus line 20 into an electrically operated line was analyzed including transport and economic aspects in order to verify the technical feasibility of the transition.
However, the conversion from diesel based operation into a completely electrical solution requires bigger investment in infrastructure and in vehicles. In order to avoid high costs for the adaption of the infrastructure in the fields of road underpasses and intersections, also a hybrid alternative – “trolley bus+” – with efficient batteries for bridging the section without catenary, so that a completely electrical operation without the use of diesel engines would be possible was analyzed.
The study came to the result, that with a partly electrical solution (“trolley bus+” with efficient batteries) the investment costs could be reduced by 25%. Cost-effective operation under the current cost structures would be possible if the buses departed at least in 15 minutes intervals considering increasing urbanization.
Phase 1: Erection of Line U3, approx. 5.7 km, 9 stations, in operation since June 2008. Phase 2: Migration of Line U2 to automatic operation, approx. 13 km (already existing in conventional operation). Migration to unattended automatic train operation (UTO) until end of 2009.
Performance specifications for calling to tender for an automatic unattended metro system (rolling stock and track equipment), incl. conversion of existing conventional route sections; concept development for fire protection (fire avoidance, detection, monitoring and fighting) and combined operation (unattended / driver-conducted); specifications for UTO in the Nuremberg metro network (rolling stock and track equipment); identifying and developing relevant operational processes for UTO, considering statutory laws and relevant regulations; planning, developing and testing of intrusion detection system on platform tracks.
Project’s goal was to clarify the requirements and prepare the technical specifications for the purchase of an automatic guidance and signalling system for the Helsinki Metro, in the process of introducing automatic unattended train operation UTO. The cooperation with system experts Prof. Schütte and Mr. Schmidt (project leader at Nuremberg metro automation project) ensured state-of-the-art system design.
Important technical conditions and overall requirements were defined in workshops, together with the client. On this basis, technical specifications for the system elements were prepared. Revision of generated specification documents and further coordination were carried out in further workshops. In order to avoid reiterations or contradictions, the elaborated specifications were reviewed internally upon final publication.
A conventional metro system was converted into an automatically operated for the very first time, while using existing vehicles.
Services included: Workshops for the clarification of technical conditions and requirements of the client and preparation of specifications and review of descriptions for implementation strategy, operational specifications, RAMS, technical requirements for control center, interlockings and wayside equipment, functional requirements for ATC and ATS, trial runs and acceptance.
Preparation of Technical Specifications and Tendering of a New Passenger Transport System (PTS) – Frankfurt International Airport — Germany
Airport extension was needed.
Distance from existing terminals 1 and 2 and railway station (north) and planned terminal 3 (south) requires a strong north-south passenger transport system.
The required reliability, speed and capacity of the new Passenger Transport System (PTS) had to be taken into account in the system planning and design. Short travel and dwelling times are necessary to ensure the fixed “minimum connection time (MCT)” for passengers changing flights. The PTS has been designed with track guided vehicles on an independent track formation. The rail stations are connected to terminal 3 via terminal 2.
The PTS consists of the system elements track, stations, vehicles and workshop. The double track has an overall length of 5.700 m, from which 3.350 m are on an elevated level, 1.100 m at grade an 1.250 m in tunnel.
Project handled in cooperation with LRTC partner companies.
Scope of Services:
- System planning, evaluation and simulation of different technical and operational concepts
- Evaluation of investment volume and Life Cycle
- Costs (LCC) for different alternatives
- System proposal
- Evaluation of different construction phases
- Planning of connection from new PTS to railway station and existing people mover system
- Vehicle design
- Planning of workshop and depot
- Evacuation and rescue concepts
- Elaboration of tender documents, coordination of tendering and assistance in awarding process
Feasibility study for unattended train operation (UTO) had to be carried out. PB-Consult was selected for elaboration of the feasibility study due to: the Nuremberg UTO experience and the experience in mixed mode operation.
Investigation and comparison of alternative operational concepts regarding Line A in fully automated mode and Line 6 in conventional operation mode: lines A and 6 operated separately; lines A and 6 operated in mixed operation mode.
Feasibility study, pointing out benefits and challenges of automated metro operation in the Oslo suburb Sandvika considering local circumstances e.g.:
Refurbishment of Avløs depot for maintenance and stabling.
Use of existing OCC at Tøyen (Oslo centre) for operation control.
Water and Sewerage Programme in Medium-Sized Municipalities (8 Towns) – Consulting Services for Programme V, Phases 1 & 2 — Serbia
Participating municipalities: Valjevo, Stara Pazova, Kikinda, Paracin, Arandjelovac, Prokuplje, Vrbas, Knjazevac.
The project objectives are:
- Continuity of Supply: 24 hours water supply to all customer
- Water Quality: WHO standards in >90 % of legally prescribed samples
- NRW reduction: The % of reduction for NRW to be defined in Phase 1
- Energy Consumption: The % of reduction for the energy consumption [in kWh/m³] to be defined in Phase 1
- Operation & Maintenance: 75 % of participating PUC have adequate operation and maintenance concept including adequate staffing and implement them. Level of maintenance expenditure and staffing to be defined in Phase 1
- Cost Recovery: Tariff revenues covering: Operation cost and Loan service ; – at least EUR 20 for per HH billed for maintenance and repair
- Collection efficiency: Minimum 80 % in each PUC
- Valjevo – WS Network rehab. (20 km), SCADA & Metering, Energy saving measures
- Stara Pazova – WS Network rehab. (4 km), Reservoir (2*2500 m³), PSt., Main, SCADA & Metering
- Kikinda – WS Network rehab. (3 km), new WTP 150 l/s, Reservoir (1*1500 m³), 1 PSt., SCADA & Metering, WM (3000)
- Paracin – WS Network rehab., mains (13.3 km DN 300 + 2 km DN 250), Reservoir (1500 m³), wells, main, PSt., SCADA, Energy saving measures
- Arandjelovac – WS Network rehab. (12 km), main (3.5 km DN 500), SCADA & Metering, Energy saving measures, Sewage network + truck
- Prokuplje – WS Network rehab. (3.5 km), main (7 km DN 400), reservoir 1*1000 m³ + 1*2000 m³, SCADA, Energy savings meas
- Vrbas – WS Network rehab. (6 km), wellfield, extension WTP 50 l/s, Reservoir 1*500 m³, SCADA, Energy saving measures, WM (5000)
- Knjazevac – WS Network rehab. (5 km), replacement 2.4 km DN 400 & 4.5 km DN 500, new 2 km DN 200, Reservoir 1*1000 m³, SCADA, Energy saving measures
Tendering and Supervision of Project Implementation – Kunene Transboundary Water Supply Project — Namibia / Angola
The target population consists of more than 150 000 inhabitants of the southern Cunene Province in Angola comprising the city of Ondjiva and the villages of Namacunde, Omupanda, Santa Clara and Calueque.
Component A, Lot 1: Calueque – estimated investment of € 1.85 million which includes:
- Water Treatment Plant with 18 m³/h
- Elevated tank (450 m³)
- 5.1 km network and 8 public taps and 110 connections
- Canal repair with construction of new offtakes
- Main pipe repair (steel DN 1600)
- PS repair and upgrade
Component B, Lot 2: Santa Clara, Namacunde, Omupanda – estimated investment of € 5.05 million which includes
- Santa Clara and Namacunde water supply system with 20 km pipes, 780 connections and 29 public taps, 3 elevated tanks (each 109 m³), 3 ground level reservoirs (2000 m³ and two with 409 m³) and 2 Pump station
- Along Santa Clara – Ondjiva transmission main 4 standposts with 1 elevated tank, 8 public taps and 5 connections as well as functional pipe test of main
Component C, Lot 3: Basic Sanitary Facilities in Ondjiva, Omupanda, Calueque, Namacunde and Santa Clara with public awareness campaign – estimated investments of € 0.55 million
- Implementation of basic sanitation (latrines, septic tanks) in Ondjiva, Omupanda, Calueque, Namacunde and Santa Clara
- Realisation of public awareness campaign
Component D, Lot 4 – Optional: Conveyor line Oshakati – Santa Clara pipeline construction including rehabilitation/upgrading of existing pump stations – estimated investment of € 5.05 million
- Pipe laying of approximately 50 km PVC DN 200 to 300
- Rehabilitation and extension of 4 No. pump stations
- Control adaptation of PS in Oshakati
- Storage capacity 2020 m³ in Santa Clara
Consulting Services for the Feasibility Study of the MIYAHUNA Operations Support Project (MOSP) — Jordan
Provide the required information, analysis and recommendations for MIYAHUNA, WAJ, GoJ, EC, EIB, KfW and AFD to endorse the MOSP project parameters and launch the appraisal that should lead to financing agreements within a reasonable time frame by clarification of the financial situation of Miyahuna with regard to borrowing capacity, assess operational, technical, institutional and financial components.
Prepare an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, establish an investment programme with prioritisation of components.
Preparation of a Feasibility Study for technical, institutional, operational and financial improvements. Preparation of a financial model for the design horizon 2035.
Consulting services for detailed design, tendering, assistance to project implementing unit (PIU) / Project executing agency (PEA) in tendering, contracting and construction supervision.
Phase 1: Survey – Design – Preparation of Tender
Task 1: Support to PIU in Procurement and Installation of Water Meters
- 11,500 Nb. meters are installed prior to the network replacement or installation works, meter installation is only included in the areas covered by pipe extensions
Task 2: Review of Existing Documents and Preparation of Surveys and Studies
Task 3: Review and Update of Existing Feasibility Study on Sewage Disposal Lezha
Task 4: Preparation of Detailed Design, incl. Hydraulic calculation for Water and Sewage
Task 5: Preparation of Tender Documents
- Water supply: Rehabilitation of transmission mains, rehabilitation of distribution network, network extensions and new connections, reservoirs replacement, installation of water meters, equipment O&M
- Wastewater investments: Rehabilitation of sewer and collector rehabilitation, extension and cleaning
- Operation building: New operation building
Task 6: Preparation of Environmental Impact Assessment Report for foreseen measures
Kunene Transboundary Water Supply and Sanitation Project; Consulting Services for the Implementation of the Project — Namibia / Angola
The overall objectives of the project are to improve the water supply situation of approximately 100 000 residents in the southern Cunene Province of Angola, especially along the road between Santa Clara and Ondjiva and in the Calueque village.
Works in Angola include:
- Improvement of Calueque dam intake, pump station, bulk metering system and river water treatment works with reservoirs and distribution for Calueque village
- Rehabilitation of the approx. 12 km Calueque-Mahenene Border channel, incl. formalisation of over 100 irrigation off-takes
- Rehabilitation of the 2.4 km long rising main pipe (steel, DN 1600) in Calueque
- Construction of water distribution networks with 4 pump stations and 6 reservoirs in Santa Clara, Namacunde and Omupanda
- Optimisation of the Santa Clara – Ondjiva pipeline and construction of public taps/kiosks along side
- Design services for a water reticulation system with 4 pump stations and 3 elevated reservoirs in Ondjiva
- Design services for central wastewater collection system with 6 pump stations and a central sewage treatment plant in Ondjiva
- Implementation of basic sanitation in Ondjiva (outside the central system) Omupanda, Calueque, Namacunde and Santa Clara
Works in Namibia include:
- Upgrade of the water conveyor line between Oshakati and Oshikango Border: Construction of 4 new pump stations, rehabilitation of existing buildings and telemetry, pipe-laying of 50 km of new pipelines OD250-355 to reinforce the water transport capacities to Angola
- Rehabilitation of transmission pipes
The objective of the project is to ensure a cost efficient and secure supply of drinking water in the Governorate of Karak. Therefore it is important to reduce the administrative losses in the water supply system via introduction of a reliable flow measurement system.
The Water Loss Reduction Program for Karak comprises of rehabilitation of the entire primary, secondary and tertiary water supply system, including new pump stations and new reservoirs. Part of the water supply system needs a rehabilitation and extension to be supplied by gravity in the future.
With the rehabilitation of these water networks, the Non-Revenue Water will be dramatically reduced below the target of 25 %. More water will be available for consumption, which will increase the revenue collection in this area.
Project volume: Investment budget: 38 Million Euro
Primary pipe system (rehabilitation/new): 36 km
Secondary + tertiary pipe system (rehab./new): 393 km
New house connections 7,800
5 new reservoirs 8,500 m³
Rehabilitation of 5 pump stations with 15 pumps incl. electrical equipment
Construction of 5 pump stations with 11 pumps incl. electrical equipment
In order to improve the parking area situation at rest stops and service stations, and off-motorway service areas, pre-gate parkingor slot-management improvement for trucks was developed using telematics-controlled truck parking (truck parking in columns). By the computerized-controlled arranging of the trucks according to their departure times, the existing area was optimally used with the result that 70 – 100 % more parking space was achieved. The fully automatic operation of the system was successfully tested and approved at the Montabaur service station and rest stop by the Frauenhofer Institute in summer 2013.
In the context of the complete renewal of the station road, the complete road environment has to be modified according to an urban development draft. First, the underground infrastructure including the house connections has to be renewed and expanded under operation. The infrastructure also includes a new drainage for infiltration water, installed with off-set heights and running parallel to the existing combined drainage, as well as a new pipeline for drinking water and telecommunication. The complete infrastructure and transport equipment measures have to be planned taking into consideration the private and commercial concerns of the neighbors and residents and should be accomplished section by section so that the access for residents can be guaranteed at all times. The necessary water rights authorizations and requirements of the traffic law have to be processed.